To document ophthalmic morbidity of golf-related injuries in children and to report specific injury patterns.
A noncomparative, interventional, retrospective case series of 11 pediatric patients treated at 2 institutions for ophthalmic trauma resulting from golf-related injuries during 15 years.
Eleven eyes of 11 patients were injured. There were 6 boys and 5 girls, with a mean age of 10.2 years (age range, 7-14 years). Ten patients were injured by golf clubs and 1 patient by a golf ball. One injury occurred on a golf course. At the initial ophthalmic examination, visual acuity was 20/20 in 4 eyes (36%), 20/25 to 20/80 in 3 eyes (27%), no light perception in 3 eyes (27%), and undeterminable in 1 eye (9%). Nine of 11 patients required surgery. Follow-up ranged from 0 to 66 months (mean follow-up, 12 months). Three of 11 subjects had permanent deficits, including blindness, decreased vision, and anophthalmia. Final visual acuity was no light perception in 2 eyes (18%), 20/70 in 1 eye (9%), and 20/20 or better in 8 eyes (73%).
The findings from this series reveal that pediatric ophthalmic golf injuries, although rare, may be devastating to the eye, periocular adnexa, and visual system. Among our cases, most injuries occurred off the golf course, many required surgery, and some resulted in permanent loss of vision.
Pediatric golf-related ophthalmic injuries.